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Finding & Using Images, Audio, and Video

Tips and resources for finding "copyright friendly" multi-media materials. Contains many links to sites with free Creative Commons and Public Domain media.

Attribution Statement or Full Citation?

It's always appropriate to give credit to the creator of any image, audio or video that you use. Often, a simple attribution statement will be sufficient, but sometimes a full citation in a formal citation style such as APA, MLA, or Chicago is preferred.

Attribution statements are commonly used in presentations, or on websites. If you are discussing the media within a paper or publication, a full citation may be needed. If you are unsure which type of credit you should use, consult with your professor.

Attribution Statement

Including images in your project is a great way to add interest and convey ideas.  Images should include an attribution statement. Using sites like Creative Commons and Wikimedia Commons makes this simple since they clearly state the provenance of images included in their databases.

An attribution statement should include:

  1. The name of the image (if there is one) ideally formatted as the URL where your veiwer can find the picture.
  2. Name of the photographer or owner of the image.
  3. A link to the Creative Commons license, if one exists.

Here is an example:

Photograph: Svetla-hrob/ Luděk Kovář/ CC-BY-SA 3.0

APA Style

Surname, A. A. (Date of creation). Title of photo/image [Type of image]. Name of Site. URL
 
Adams, A. E. (1941). In Glacier National Park [Photograph]. National Archives. http://www.archives.gov/research/ansel-adams/images/aae02.jpg

If no author, move title of media to beginning of citation.
If no date, use (n.d.).
If no title, briefly describe subject and type of work in brackets.

Surname, A. A. (Date of publication). Title of photo/image [Type of image]. Name of Site. URL
 
Biology lab with Alice Goldsby [Photograph]. (ca. 1970-1975). UW Digital Collections. http://digital.library.wisc.edu/1711.dl/UW.UWGB
 
[Untitled photograph of woman in laboratory]. (n.d.). Louisiana Digital Library. http://www.louisianadigitallibrary.com/cdm/ref/ collection/p16313coll28/id/232
Artist, A. A. (Date of recording). Title of song [Song (additional creator details if relevant)]. On Title of album. Label. (Date of original work if different from recording date)
 
Beethoven, L. van. (2012). Symphony No. 3 in E-flat major [Song recorded by Staatskapelle Dresden]. On Beethoven: Complete symphonies. Brilliant Classics. (Original work published 1804)
 
Beyonce. (2016). Formation [Song]. On Lemonade. Parkwood; Columbia.
Creator/Poster, A. A. (Date). Title of video [Video]. Name of Hosting Site URL
 
University of Oxford. (2018, December 6). How do geckos walk on water? [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qm1xGfOZJc8
 
Palmer, A. (2013, February). Amanda Palmer: The art of asking [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/amanda_palmer_the_art_of_asking

MLA Style

Lastname, Firstname. "Title of Photo/Image." Name of Collection/Archive/Webpage, Publisher of Website, Date, URL.
 
Adams, Ansel. "In Glacier National Park." Ansel Adams Photographs, National Archives,1941, http://www.archives.gov/research/ansel-adams/images/aae02.jpg.

If no author, move title of media to beginning of citation.
If no title, briefly describe subject without quotation marks.

Lastname, Firstname. "Title of Photo/Image." Name of Collection/Archive/Webpage, Publisher of Website, Date, URL.
 
"Biology lab with Alice Goldsby." History of UW-Green Bay, University of Wisconsin-Madison Libraries, 1970-1975?, http://digital.library.wisc.edu/1711.dl/UW.UWGB.
Photograph of woman in laboratory. Louisiana Digital Library, Loyola University, New Orleans, http://www.louisianadigitallibrary.com/cdm/ref/ collection/p16313coll28/id/232.
Lastname, Artist. "Title of Song." Title of Album, Other contributors (if important), Label, Date, URL
 
John, Elton. "Someone Saved my Life Tonight." Captain Fantastic and the Brown Dirt Cowboy, written by Bernie Taupin, Big Pig Music Limited, 1975, https://open.spotify.com/album/4UcpKa4yD9AA3iEHI8MFSF.
Lastname, Firstname. "Title of Video." Title of Website, uploaded by Name (if different from Creator), Publisher (if different from Website), Date, URL.
 
Palmer, Amanda. "Amanda Palmer: The Art of Asking." TED: Ideas Worth Spreading, Feb. 2013, https://www.ted.com/talks/amanda_palmer_the_art_of_asking

Chicago Style (Notes-Bibliography)

Note:

1. Author A. Surname, Image Title, Date of creation, Type of image, Title of Website, URL.

2. Surname, "Shortened Image Title," Page or location (if available).

 

1. Ansel Adams, In Glacier National Park, 1941, Photograph, National Archives, http://www.archives.gov/research/ansel-adams/images/aae02.jpg.

2. Adams, In Glacier National Park.

 
Bibliography:
Surname, Author A.  Image Title. Date of creation. Type of image. Title of Website, URL.
 
Adams, Ansel. In Glacier National Park. 1941. Photograph. National Archives, http://www.archives.gov/research/ansel-adams/images/aae02.jpg.

If no author, move title of media to beginning of citation.
If no date, use (n.d.).
If no title, briefly describe type and subject of work in brackets.

Note:

1. Author A. Surname, Image Title, Date of creation, Type of image, Title of Website, URL.

2. Surname, "Shortened Image Title," Page or location (if available).

 

1. Biology Lab with Alice Goldsby, [1970-1975?], Photograph, History of UW-Green Bay, http://digital.library.wisc.edu/1711.dl/UW.UWGB.

2. Biology Lab.

3. [Untitled photograph of woman in laboratory], n.d., Photograph, Louisiana Digital Library, http://www.louisianadigitallibrary.com/cdm/ref/ collection/p16313coll28/id/232.

4. [Woman in laboratory].

 
Bibliography:
Surname, Author A.  Image Title. Date of creation. Type of image. Title of Website, URL.
 
Biology Lab with Alice Goldsby. [1970-1975?]. Photograph. History of UW-Green Bay, http://digital.library.wisc.edu/1711.dl/UW.UWGB.
[Untitled photograph of woman in laboratory]. n.d. Photograph. Louisiana Digital Library, http://www.louisianadigitallibrary.com/cdm/ref/ collection/p16313coll28/id/232.
Note:

1. Author A. Surname, role (if applicable), "Title of Song," Other Contributors (if applicable), Format, track # on Title of Album, Label, Date, URL.

2. Surname, "Shortened Song Title," track or time (if applicable).

 

1. Elton John, "Someone Saved My Life Tonight," written by Bernie Taupin, Spotify, track 5 on Captain Fantastic and the Brown dirt Cowboy, Big Pig Music LImited, 1975, https://open.spotify.com/album/4UcpKa4yD9AA3iEHI8MFSF.

2. John, "Someone Saved My Life."

 
Bibliography:
Surname, Author A. "Title of Song." Other Contributors (if applicable). On Title of Album. Label, Year, Format. URL.
 
John, Elton. "Someone Saved My Life Tonight." Written by Bernie Taupin. On Captain Fantastic and the Brown Dirt Cowboy. Big Pig Music Limited, 1975, Spotify. https://open.spotify.com/album/4UcpKa4yD9AA3iEHI8MFSF.
Note:

1. Author A. Surname, "Title of Video," Date, format, Time. URL.

2. Surname, "Shortened Video Title," Time stamp (if applicable).

 

1. Amanda Palmer, “Amanda Palmer: The Art of Asking,” filmed February 2013, TED video, 13:41. https://www.ted.com/talks/amanda_palmer_the_art_of_asking.

2. Palmer, "Art of Asking."

 
Bibliography:
Surname, Author A. "Video Title." Filmed Date in Place (if applicable). Format, time. URL.
 
Palmer, Amanda. "Amanda Palmer: The Art of Asking.” Filmed February 2013. TED video, 13:41. https://www.ted.com/talks/amanda_palmer_the_art_of_asking.

Other types of media? Use NoodleTools!

NoodleTools NoodleTools is a resource you can use to gather citations to sources you are using for papers and projects.

You can make annotations and enter notes about these sources. Then you can format your sources into bibliographies using citation styles such as APA, MLA, and Chicago.

To get started, go to NoodleTools and click on Register to sign up for an account. Access is limited to current UW-Green Bay students, faculty, and staff.

Using NoodleTools for APA Style

APA has released a new 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association in 2020. However, NoodleTools is not yet updated to the new rules. Check with your instructor to see if they will allow you to use 6th edition rules or if you need to update citations to the 7th edition by hand. Contact a librarian if you need help.

Credit

Guide content based on the Finding and Using Media guide from the J. Edgar & Louise S. Monroe Library, Loyola University & the Copyright & Creative Commons, Free Images and Music guide from the Brisbane Grammar School Libraries.