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DJS 204: Freedom & Social Control

Andrew Austin

Chicago Citation Resources

For a complete list of examples and specifics about Chicago style please refer to The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition (Call Number: REF Z 253 .U69 2017), located on the 3rd floor of Cofrin Library. Use the links above for examples, tips, and further help.

Common Chicago Examples (Author-Date)

Some of the resources linked above use Notes-Bibliography style. This course requires the Author-Date style (preferred for natural, physical, and social sciences.) If you don't see an example of your source type below, convert a Notes-Bibliography style citation to Author-Date style by moving the year after the author(s) and following with a period. For more detailed information, consult the Chicago Manual of Style.

Surname, Author A. Year. "Article Title." Title of Journal Volume, no. Issue (Month/Season, if given): Pages. DOI [or stable URL].
Lock, Margaret. 2015. "Comprehending the Body in the Era of the Epigenome.” Current Anthropology 56, no. 2 (April): 151-77.
Surname, Author A. Year. Title of Book. City, State: Publisher.
Gawande, Atul. 2014.Being Mortal: Medicine and What Matters in the End. London: Profile Books.
Surname, Author A. Year. "Title of Chapter." In Title of Book, edited by Editor E. Surname, pages. City, State: Publisher.
Miller, Ruth A. 2014. "Posthuman." In Critical Terms for the Study of Gender, edited by Catharine R. Stimpson and Gilbert Herdt, 320-327. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Surname, Author A. Year. "Web Page Title." Publishing Organization or Name of Website. Last modified Full Date [and/or Accessed Full Date], URL.
Lennon, J. Robert. 2010. "How Do You Revise?” Ward Six (blog). September 16, 2010.

*Citation examples taken from the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed. and the Purdue Online Writing Lab*


Always follow any modifications to Chicago style provided by your instructor.

In-Text Citations

  • In-text, or parenthetical, citations indicate you are quoting, summarizing, or paraphrasing someone else's work or ideas.
  • In-text citations should correspond to a source in your reference list - this helps your reader identify the original source used.
  • Placement depends on how you incorporate a source into your writing - there is more than one correct way to cite in-text.

In-Text Citation Basic Rules

For more detailed information on in-text citations in Author-Date style, consult the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., sections 15.21-31.

Include page/section numbers when referring to a specific part of the work. Omit abbreviations such as ed. or trans.


(Piaget 1980, 74)
(Claussen 2015, para. 2.15)
(Hellman 2017, under "The Battleground") This example refers to a section title since page/section numbers are not available.

When you include the author's name in your text, you do not need to repeat it in the parenthetical citation. Give the date (and page numbers) in parentheses immediately after the author's name.


Fiorina et al. (2005) and Fischer and Hout (2006) reach more or less the same conclusions.
As Edward Tufte (2001, 139) points out, "A graphical element may carry data information and also perform a design function usually left to non-data-ink."

Author-date citations are generally placed before the punctuation mark in a sentence, although a punctuation mark is not needed if the sentence does not call for it. 


According to the data collected by Schonen et al. (2017), ...
...end of the sentence (Piaget 1980 ,74).
Fiorina et al. (2005) and Fischer and Hout (2006) reach more or less the same conclusions.

Use a block quotation if your quote is longer than 100 words or more than one paragraph: start the quote on a new line, indented an additional 0.5 inches. The parenthetical citation for a block quotation is placed after the punctuation mark.


...block quotation block quotation block quotation block quotation block quotation block quotation block quotation block quotation block quotation block quotation block quotation block quotation block quotation block quotation. (Piaget 1980, 74-75)

Two or three authors:

(Fischer and Hout 2006)
(Keng, Lin, and Orazem 2017, 9-10)

Four or more authors:

(Schonen et al. 2017)

If you refer to the same page (or page range) several times in a paragraph, place the parenthetical citation after the last reference to the source, or at the end of the paragraph.

When you refer to different pages in the same source, place a full parenthetical citation after the first reference; include only the page number for the following references.


Complexion figures prominently in Morgan's descriptions. When Jasper compliments his mother's choice of car (a twelve-cylinder Mediterranean roadster with leather and wood-grained interior), "his cheeks blotch indignantly, painted by jealousy and rage" (Chaston 2000, 47). On the other hand, his mother's mask never changes, her "even-tanned good looks" (56), "burnished visage" (101), and "air-brushed confidence" (211) providing the foil to the drama in her midst.

*Citation examples taken from the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed.*

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