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The Informal Power of Women in the Late Roman Republic

Presenter: Kim Krueger, History, Ancient & Medieval Studies

The end of the Roman Republic was dominated by the elite male population who controlled society and politics. These male authors put forth a vision of the Republic as it began to crumble, but they do not detail the power of women who existed beside them. However, women had their own ways to manipulate politics and social relationships both within and outside of the expected female standards of behavior. These techniques were forms of informal power and can be understood by analyzing the sources beyond their biases to see what is implied by the authors. Clodia Metelli is one example of a woman who exercised female informal power in the late Roman Republic. Born into one of the most powerful families in Rome, Clodia had status and wealth but she was subjected to intense scrutiny then and now through Cicero’s famous trial oration, the Pro Caelio. However, it is possible to discern Clodia as an independent and powerful person in the Pro Caelio and the private letters of Cicero. Clodia can be used as a case study to define informal power because of the number of sources that write about her during the Late Roman Republic. These sources offer a fuller look at Clodia as a remarkable woman who influenced politics through social relationships and wealth while officially relegated to the background of Roman society. She is more than just a portrayed literary character and more than just the shadow of the men around her. Women similar to Clodia in the Late Republic were not just passive actors as their male relatives decided the fate of the Republic, but were influential individuals that advised and worked for their own independent aims through informal power.

Faculty: Gregory Aldrete; Heidi Sherman

Gothic Tropes in African American Literature and Video Games

Presenter: April Nicole Bub, Writing & Applied Arts; Information Science - Game Studies

The study and discussion of Gothic Tropes and representation in African American Literature and Video Games such as the novel Romance in Marseille and the video game Mafia III.

Faculty: Ann Mattis

Mental health advocacy for African American and Indian Women

Presenters: Taiyana Plummer, English, Democracy and Justice Studies (Minor), Women's Gender, and Sexuality (Minor); Anmol Bhatoya Psychology & Human Biology

Although mental health acknowledgment has grown in recent years resulting in the advocacy for individuals with poor mental health and resources to better them, there is still reduced care for marginalized communities. Underrepresentation is also a problem. Proper depictions and representation of the different forms of mental health in various communities help end stigmas and create proper resources. This presentation will focus on and inform the ways mental illness affects African American Women and Indian women, and how poor advocacy, underrepresentation, and disparities among individuals of those groups have resulted in the decline of their mental health.

Faculty: Ann Mattis

Charles Coughlin, Antisemitism, Right Wing Populism, and Influence of Radio Propaganda

Presenter: Carlos Perez Martinez, History & Philosophy

The study of right-wing populism has seen a resurgence since the aftermath of the 2016 election. More attention has been paid to right-wing populists of the past to understand the present political climate. Father Charles E. Coughlin was a major right-wing populist who emerged from the social upheaval caused by the great depression. What is unique about Charles Coughlin is that he utilized the medium of radio more effectively than his contemporaries. Originally, he used the radio to broadcast his sermons, but quickly inserted his own politics into his broadcasts. His fiery rhetoric and natural charisma naturally led to a massive audience. At his peak, he garnered nearly thirty million listeners. Originally, Coughlin was a fervent supporter of Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s New Deal but withdrew his support after his attempts to get FDR to implement his own policy proposals failed. Coughlin mounted a third-party campaign in 1936 with the remnants of the “Share Our Wealth” Movement and the Townsend movement, but it failed because there was little, if any, organizing on the ground. Following this defeat, Coughlin saw no more inroads into electoral politics and began to focus his efforts on his radio show as a means to influence politics. More than anyone else in America, Coughlin showed how powerful the new medium of radio could be in spreading hateful propaganda and rhetoric. For Coughlin, this manifested in his antisemitic and fascist tendencies. At the same time, Coughlin’s popularity did not translate into a real movement like Huey Long’s. While Coughlin was a popular figure who had a massive influence on public opinion, this only created the illusion of a mass movement. The radio was his greatest asset, but also his greatest liability, as the nature of the medium fostered the illusion of movement.

Faculty: Clifton Ganyard

How Depictions of Trauma in the British Novel Have Improved

Presenter: Victoria Wittenbrock, English

This paper discusses the ways in which trauma's perception and care has evolved through its depiction in the British novel over the past few hundred years. Despite the ways trauma was greatly misunderstood by society in the past, improvements have been made to show a more accurate description of the ways trauma is experienced and treated, as evidenced by its depiction over time in the British novel. Symptoms, stereotypes, and medical improvements are each detailed in the ways they are described by different authors in different time periods

Faculty: Valerie Murrenus Pilmaier

Collegiate Limitations and the Fight for Control

Presenter: Dalaney Steger, History

An in depth research project about college in the 1950s and 60s, as seen through the lens of primary source archive letters. A look at how love letters between two college sweethearts, attending different Wisconsin colleges, can shed light on how collegiate individuals fought for their rights, in a time when they had few.

Faculty: Lisa Lamson

Polio: Deadly foe or therapeutic friend?

Presenter: CJ Connor Jonsson, Pre Dietetics

An estimated 1.95 million Americans will be diagnosed with some form of cancer in 2023. Approximately 13,000 of these cases will be a form of deadly brain cancer known as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). GBM develops from astrocytes, a special cell in the brain, which nourish and support neurons. Unfortunately, the 5 year survival rate for GBM is only about 7%. In the late 1990s, a non-pathogenic version of the polio virus was designed for the treatment of brain tumors at Duke University in North Carolina. This treatment known as oncolytic polio/rhinovirus recombinant (PVSRIPO) is based on the Sabin type 1 polio vaccine and uses recombinant DNA technology to modify the polio virus so that it is safe for clinical medical use. In 2012 the first patients with recurrent grade 4 GBM received PVSRIPO. Because of polio’s deadly history, its use as a therapeutic medical treatment and its near eradication represents the potential movement of human society into a new era of polio virus history.

Faculty: Jessica Warwick

The Social Media Dilemma

Presenters:Jessie Kreiling, Water Science Major with a Minor in Geoscience; Emma Larson, Art and Psychology Major with a Minor in Post-Secondary Education; Zachary Pete, Psychology; Abigail Vasquez Ortega,Design Arts

Our final project and presentation for WF105-Research and Rhetoric was to analyze rhetorical artifacts in a multimedia presentation. Our group chose to focus on social media; its benefits, the impact on our personal privacy, and the alarming impact this reckoning force has on mental health and wellness.

Faculty: Roshelle Amundson

Indigenous Discrimination and Violence

Presenters: Morley Remitz; Devon Barley; Anna Wink; Amanda Lucowicz

Our final project and presentation for WF105-Research and Rhetoric was to analyze a number of rhetorical artifacts on a theme. Within this multimedia presentation, we deconstructed the rhetoric, appeals, and social/cultural/historical/political contexts of a number of artifacts. Our focus includes the MMIW movement and the mass graves found at Carlisle Industrial Indian school. While righting these wrongs has gained momentum, there is still so much more work to be done.

Faculty: Roshelle Amundson

brand new beast, a poetry chapbook by Sophie Bebeau

Presenter: Sophie Bebeau, Writing & Applied Arts

"brand new beast” is a chapbook of poetry that examines the imperfections of romantic relationships, exploring who we are when we are in them and what they’ve turned us into when they’re over. Temporalties of the past, present, and future are woven together in a messy braid as the poems seek to both explore and abstract themes of betrayal, commitment, and sexuality. The poems present in this chapbook interrogate the secret language of our intimate relationships and how the people we love change us - for better or for worse.

Faculty: Chris McAllister Williams

Analysis of social control mechanisms

Presenter: James Harris, Democracy and Justice Studies & Political Science

In colonial Tanzania, British occupiers operated in a resource-limited environment. Colonizers largely maintained control through social methods rather than blatant coercion. Following independence, many social control systems failed. Systems of control were reinstated through economic means. Seemingly altruistic aid often made countries dependent on their former colonizers. Newly independent countries frequently became dependent on technology they could not maintain. Western countries frequently apply tariffs to African finished goods, keeping the country poor and labor cheap. Through the lens of Social Science, I explore the reinstatement and legacies of colonial systems of control in an independent study research paper. I will draw literature from political science, history, sociology, and archival material. Any increase in personal liberty comes at the expense of the powerful; understanding the methodology of those who resist social justice allows leaders to create change more effectively. Modern social justice movements frequently oppose the legacies of colonial power. Understanding how systems of control are maintained is crucial to effectively changing society.

Faculty: Kaden Paulson-Smith

Music Therapy

Presenter: Brienna Landsness, Psychology

This is my capstone project for my music major. This Power-Point presentation is about the many elements and benefits of music therapy. I will first explain the details of what music therapy is and how one can become a music therapist. Then, I will go into detail about an interview I had with a music therapist, Angie Danowski. Finally, I will go through case studies done on music therapy and the many ways it can help people of all populations.

Faculty: Michelle McQuade Dewhirst

The Motivating Power of Self-Compassion in Sport

Presenter: Gracie Moffett, Psychology

Self-compassion is an adaptive response to difficulties, involving being mindful of difficult experiences rather than overidentifying with them; acknowledging that having struggles is universal rather than feeling isolated; and being more caring towards oneself (Neff, 2022). In this proposed talk, I will present the literature on self-compassion and the benefits of practicing self-compassion, especially for athletes and performers who hold themselves to high standards. As a research assistant, I will present research findings from the Self-Compassion, Mindfulness, and Athlete Resilience Training (SMART) program, an eight-week group intervention for high school and collegiate athletes. Using data from quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews, I will discuss participants’ perceptions of their changes in positive and negative motivational factors, sport performance, and well-being.

Faculty: Alan Chu

"Place," a story-poem by Mary Schreiner

Presenter: Mary Schreiner, Writing & Applied Arts

I wrote ""Place"" last spring during my UWGB Study Abroad class in Wales. We were asked to describe a local market. This poem describes a realm that embraces all six senses and explores cultural and generational meanings beyond that local market.

The first line, ""A stranger, an American wandering through a place that is more than a space, more than a local market"" lays the groundwork for my encounters with a Fish Monger, a random Fortune Teller sign, a Storekeeper, a Shoe Peddler, two patrons, and an elderly women selling wool. The conclusion asks readers to reflect upon: What is a strangely?

Faculty: Valerie Murrenus Pilmaier

Panopticism and The Closet in Giovanni's Room

Presenter: Mickey Schommer, English & German

I will be reading my essay during in this presentation. My essay speaks about the function of "the closet" in conjunction with Foucault's theory of Panopticism in James Baldwin's "Giovanni's Room"

Faculty: Valerie Murrenus Pilmaier


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Meta-Analysis on the Effect of Social Media on Empathy

Presenters: Lizeth Bautista, Psychology; De'Karlos Valentino, Psychology; Makenna Bisch, Psychology

By gathering and analyzing various literature in a meta-analysis, we attempt to determine the relationship between the use of social media and empathy on a global scale. Previous research has shown that within certain geographical areas the use of SNS has led to an increase in empathy, while in others it has decreased. We conducted a database search of Web of Science, PubMed, ProQuest, PsycINFO, and other EBSCOhost databases. We observed empathy in a broad definition which included cognitive empathy, empathic concern, emotion contagion, affective empathy, and other relating aspects. We screened all articles using the systematic review software, Covidence. From screening, 160 related articles were obtained. After reviewing those articles, 106 were excluded due to insufficient or lacking measures of empathy and /or social media. We were left with 54 eligible research studies from which we would be able to extract an effect size (Pearson). Authors were contacted if effect sizes were not provided in the article. Effect sizes will be combined and compared using random-effects meta-analysis to determine the relationship between social media use and empathy. We will analyze the effects of social media use and empathy within different countries. We hope that this meta-analysis will allow us to understand the extent of social media usage on empathy, and whether its effect varies within different populations

Faculty: Alison Jane Martingano

Betrayal of In-group Favoritism Among Young College Aged Males

Presenters: Brooke Bayerl, Human Resource Management; Megan Dobner, Human Resource Management

We conducted a research study regarding in-group favoritism. In-group favoritism is the constant biases of one's similar demographics (age, race, & gender). Throughout this study, we focused on finding the in-group favoritism among young college males 25 and younger. The out-group aspect of this study was mid-aged females 40-50 years old. The theoretical theory is that there is a betrayal between age and gender (a 25-year-old male and younger compared to a 40-50-year-old female). There was a significant observation as in-group favoritism was proven to occur between age and gender in the workplace.

Faculty: Allen Huffcutt

Development of Simple Sequence Repeats for Wild Rice Conservation Genetics

Presenter: Jennifer Boush, Pre-Veterinary Biology

Wild rice, along with maize (Zea mays), are the only two cereal grains native to North America. It has been a seasonal staple food for Native Americans for centuries, as well as an important species for native Wisconsin wildlife. Wild rice is widely known as an important food source for fall-migrating waterfowl as well as an important species for the promotion of biodiversity; it has the potential to produce over 500 pounds of seed per acre, is rich in nutrients, and provides shelter for many species. Wild rice consists of four species of grasses that, together, form the genus Zizania, three species of which are native to North America and one species is native to China. Of the three species of wild rice native to North America, two species can be found in Wisconsin, Northern wild rice (Zizania palustris), which comes in two varieties (Zizania palustris var. palustris) and (Zizania palustris var. interior) and Southern wild rice, which comes in two varieties, one of which can be found in Wisconsin (Zizania aquatica var. aquatica). Wild rice restoration in northeast Wisconsin is gaining importance in public, private, and governmental sectors. Samples from native wild rice populations on the western shore of lower Green Bay were collected 2017-2022 from five populations by researchers at UW-Green Bay. Previous student research identified four populations of Z. palustris and one population of Z. aquaticus from DNA sequencing. In this current study, we are using simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci to evaluate genetic diversity within populations and gene flow among populations. Twenty SSR loci were identified from the genome sequence of Z. palustris and are being evaluated. Population genetic analyses of the 105 plants from four populations are underway. Results from conservation genetics studies such as this one can be used to provide essential information for land managers to use for developing and refining wild rice restoration plans, including seed sourcing for restoration projects. The development of molecular markers that capture population-level variation are crucial for tracking gene flow among populations. Estimates of genomic variation can provide information on the potential of native wild rice populations to respond to environmental change.

Faculty: Lisa Grubisha; Amy Carrozzino-Lyon

Analysis of attrition in an online social empathy intervention

Presenter: Chad Brewer, Psychology

Empathy is how a person reacts to another person’s experiences (Davis, 1983). It is a multi-dimensional construct. The interpersonal reactivity index is a widely used measure containing four empathy subscales: Perspective Taking, Fantasy, Empathic Concern, and Personal Distress (Davis, 1980).

One practice purported to grow empathy is known as empathy circles.

Empathy circles have members speak empathically with strangers in live online sessions. Empathy circle participants take turns alternating between the roles of speaker, active listener, and passive listener.

The ability to effectively study empathy in group settings is crucial to develop empirical data on increasing empathy efficiently.

We contacted potential participants to take part in the study using a combination of email and LinkedIn outreach (N=1369). These numbers dropped at each step. 132 potential participants indicated interest, and 47 began a pre-test survey. 28 completed the survey and were assigned to either the experiment or control group. Both groups met for a 1.5-hour session once a week for eight consecutive weeks. 12 participants completed the first-week session, and by week eight, (N=6) participants remained.

We will examine dispositional factors from our participants to see if there were any barriers with the population drawn on for this study. Data are currently being collected and analyzed and are scheduled to be completed by the first week of April.

Participants joined the study from many different locations, and time zone issues proved to be a problem. Future studies would benefit from drawing upon a more localized population. While getting all participants to meet for one session can be difficult, getting the same group to meet for eight consecutive weeks proved challenging. The participants in this study were not offered compensation. Future studies could benefit from offering compensation. Additionally, a single session, rather than an eight-week study, would be more feasible.

Faculty: Alison Jane Martingano

The Effects of COVID-19 on College Students: Pre- and Post-Vaccine

Presenters: Emily Brosig, Marketing/Psychology; Simran Challana, Human Resource Management; Brinley Kowalkowski, M.S. Management Program

This research examined the impact of COVID-19 on college students net resource loss and stress levels by offering a comparison across pre- and post-vaccine phases of the pandemic. 256 business students completed a survey assessing their net resource loss, stress, physical and psychological health, well-being, and academic performance. College students reported over five fewer net resource losses, but the same levels of stress in this post-vaccine sample vs. the pre-vaccine sample. In support of hypotheses from Hobfoll’s (1989) Conservation of Resource (COR) theory, students reported a negative impact on net resource loss and stress from the COVID-19 pandemic regardless of vaccination status. Further, the effects were more negative for females than males as well as for upper-class students (juniors, seniors, super seniors) compared to lower-class students (freshmen, sophomores). This is the first study to test the differential impact of resource type (personal characteristics, conditions, energies, and objects) with the relationship to stress finding that personal characteristics were the key component explaining most of the variance in stress. Post hoc analyses revealed that vaccination status moderated the relationship between stress and psychological health such that for students reporting lower stress, vaccinated students reported significantly higher psychological heath than unvaccinated students; and for students reporting higher stress, vaccinated students reported significantly lower psychological health than the unvaccinated students. Overall, this is the first series of studies that have explored the effects of net resource loss at two critical points in a global pandemic, pre- and post- vaccine.

Faculty: Dianne Murphy; David Radosevich

Soil to Medicine

Presenters: Kyle Cerroni, Environmental Engineering; Jonathan Rossmiller, Environmental Engineering

The discovery and use of antibiotics have revolutionized care for bacterial infections in the medical field. However, as time passes, known antibiotics are less effective in treating bacterial infections due to antibiotic resistance. Many antibiotics are found by examining bacteria living in the soil. In Lab, we collected soil and performed serial dilutions to find bacteria isolates that showed resistance to escape pathogens. Methods used to obtain these samples included soil dilutions, biochemical tests, and a PCR test to identify the antibiotic-producing bacteria. Isolated bacteria samples from the soil dilution were grown on media containing escape pathogens to determine which isolated bacteria samples produced antibiotics. Results from the tests identified three samples of antibiotic-producing bacteria effective in both the gram-positive and gram-negative escape pathogens. The importance of this research is to combat the growing ineffectiveness of antibiotics being used and to discover new species of antibiotic-producing bacteria.

Faculty: Lisa Grubisha

The modulatory effect of early life stress and anxiety on the neuroscience of empathy

Presenters: Karsten Cowan, Psychology; Liz Williams, Psychology; Hailey Olson, Psychology; Paige Anderson, Psychology

A host of investigations have found that early social environment may alter the development of social cognition, the neural dynamics of social cognition, and subsequent mental health outcomes. However, two questions remaining outstanding: first, does early life stressful experience alter the temporal neural dynamics of empathic concern, and second, is the current mental health status modulatory in the expected former relation. Thus, the goal of the present study was to investigate whether early the relation between early life stressful experiences altering slower wave ERP dynamic (LPP) neural responses to the pain of others is modulated by mental health status.

Faculty: Jason Cowell

The Search for New Antibiotics

Presenters: Natalie Delgoffe, Biology; Dustin Didier, Biology; Jena Berceau, Environmental Science

There is an increasing development of antibiotic resistance strains of bacteria and it presents a problem to world health. To combat that, we obtained a soil sample to search for potential antibiotic producing bacterial strains. We performed a serial soil dilution and master plated 41 bacterial colonies on 10% TSA (Trypticase soy agar; N=15), PDA (Potato dextrose agar; N=12) and GYE (Glycerol yeast extract; N=14) agar plates. The 41 bacterial colonies were tested for zones of inhibition on a lawn of Escherichia coli (EC) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE), with six as possible antibiotic producers. We characterized our six antibiotic producers by biochemical tests (e.g., Catalase, MacConkey Agar (MAC), Sulfide, Indole, Motility (SIM), phenol red fermentation, stains (e.g., Gram and Endospore), and DNA sequencing). Our research is incomplete so we cannot determine if we have new antibiotics, but we have intentions for others to further our efforts to combat antibiotic resistance strains.

Faculty: Lisa Grubisha

The Effect of Sex Education on Pornography Consumption in Emerging Adulthood

Presenter: Stephanie Felland, Psychology

Sex education is broadly defined as information about sex, abstinence, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), the process of reproduction, and safe sex practices. Sex education in the United States has often been defined as a consequence-only framework (Bay-Cheng, 2003). This type of framework has led to the rise of Abstinence-Only Until Marriage (AOUM) sex education, portraying sexual activity before marriage as dangerous and dysfunctional (Estes, 2016). The lack of comprehensive sex education can lead students to look elsewhere for their questions about sex and relationships. Previous research has indicated that when sources of sex education such as schools are lacking, students may look elsewhere for answers to their questions (Kapsalis 1996; Kubicek et al. 2010).

This study will test the following hypotheses (1) Early abstinence-based education yields early turning to pornography for sex education which may increase the frequency of pornography consumption later in life (2) Early turning to porn for sex education may increase negative emotions regarding sexual experiences.

Faculty: Jason Cowell

How Does Children's Executive Functioning Affect Their Tendency to Cheat and Lie?

Presenters: Claire Geurts, Psychology; Sydney Ibe, Psychology

The purpose of this study is to examine children’s executive functioning and deception using a behavioral temptation resistance task and a Dimensional Card Change Sort task. We hypothesize lower executive functioning leads to a greater tendency to cheat, and higher executive functioning will lead to a greater tendency to lie.

Faculty: Sawa Senzaki

Identification of Unknown Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria

Presenter: Madison Gordon, Undeclared

One of the greatest threats to global health is antibiotic resistance. Bacterial infections, such as, Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), can become immune to medicine designed to help fight against it. This student research project is part of the Tiny Earth activity book. To begin, we diluted one gram of soul tenfold to isolate individual colonies of bacteria to discover antibiotic producers. We plated this soil dilution on 10% Tryptic Soy Agar, Potato Dextrose Agar, and Glycerol Yeast Extract agar plates: two of each. We left them to incubate in room temperature for two days to allow for microbial growth. We selected individual colonies and transferred them to master plates, which would act as our main source for pure colony isolation. Using Bacillus Subtilis (BS) as our gram-positive pathogen and Escherichia Coli (EC) as our gram-negative pathogen, we found one gram-positive bacteria of 10% TSA, one gram-positive and one gram-negative bacteria of PDA, and one gram-negative bacteria of GYE all produced a “halo” formation around themselves, meaning they are pure cultures. Bacterial infections, such as Bacillus Subtilis, Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus, and much more are rapidly mutating mostly within farms, who use about 80% of antibiotics used to stimulate growth in farm animals, which humans eat, causing the tolerance to grow, making it harder for these diseases to be treated. Being able to test and isolate different microbial colonies is essential for the improvement of this problem.

Faculty: Lisa Grubisha

The Role of Parent-Child Synchrony on Perspective Taking and Sharing

Presenters: Jocelyn Hamann, Psychology; Madelynn Krueger, Psychology

The purpose of this study is to explore the role of parent-child synchrony (as measured via RSA and skin conductance) on children’s emotional perspective-taking and sharing behaviors. It is not until middle childhood that children can take an emotional perspective, such as the feeling of guilt when engaging in wrongdoing (Ishikawa, 2010). Parents can also influence children’s sharing behaviors through their parenting, inherited beliefs, and culture. Parent-child physiological synchrony typically predicts positive development in children (Armstrong, Miller, & Obradovi, 2021). It is unclear how parent-child physiological synchrony is related to children’s socio-cognitive ability and their sharing behaviors during early to middle childhood.

Our hypotheses is that higher rates of synchrony will be associated with greater emotional perspective-taking and sharing and higher level of emotional perspective taking will lead to greater sharing behaviors.

Faculty:Sawa Senzaki

The Urban Heat Island Effect in Charlotte, North Carolina: Creating Climate Resilient Communities

Presenter: Katie Hieb, Environmental Policy and Planning

The urban heat island effect is a global phenomenon facing cities that creates warmer temperatures due to the changing of landscapes from rural to urban. Due to the lack of vegetation and human activity, cities can be several degrees warmer than surrounding areas. This puts the lives of citizens at risk due to warmer temperatures bringing heat related illnesses. With the effects of climate change, cities are already getting hotter, and the urban heat island effect dramatically increases warming within cities. Charlotte, North Carolina, is a city that has been seeing the effects of the urban heat island effect recently but has not created any policies to mitigate its effects. Criteria of effectiveness, equity, and operability were used to formulate policy alternatives to reduce Charlotte's urban heat island effect, making a climate resilient community. Using quantitative data and case studies, three policy alternatives were formulated to reduce Charlotte's urban heat island. These policy alternatives include increasing tree top canopy covering through the use of sidewalk, buildings, and street ordinances; implementing cool roofs on buildings; and incorporating green roofs into urban planning. These alternatives were then ranked and found increasing tree top canopy covering to be the best policy alternative, followed by green roofs, and lastly cool roofs. Charlotte should implement climate mitigation strategies like the ones above, to dramatically lower the urban heat island effect, leading to a cooler and healthier city.

Faculty: David Helpap

The Effects of Ethanol Extracts of Echinacea Purpurea on Superoxide Anion Production by HL-60 Cells

Presenters: Nicholas Kohlmann, Human Biology; Kaleb Voight, Biology major, Chemistry major; Abby Miller, Chemistry major, German minor; Brenna Wolff, Human Biology; Noah Schaaf, Biology; Charlotte Wroblesk, Human Biology major, Physics minor; Allie Mayhew, Human Biology major, Spanish & Latin American Studies minor

Echinacea is a commercially available herbal supplement studied to have health benefits and improve upper respiratory tract diseases, such as the common cold and influenza. Echinacea activity on superoxide anion production by the promyelocytic cell line, HL-60, was evaluated by culturing the cells with different ethanol extracts of Echinacea purpurea (E. purpurea).

Faculty: Julie Wondergem; Brian Merkel; Dhanamalee Bandara

Removing phosphorus from cropland runoff using drinking water treatment residuals and phragmites biochar pellets

Presenters: Beth Kondro, Environmental Science and Policy; Sean Babasin, Environmental Engineering Technology

Seasonal hypoxia of lakes in the Midwest, Gulf of Mexico, and surface waters around the world as a result of excessive algal production, has a detrimental effect on the local aquatic species, environment, and recreation. Despite investments in point source reductions, seasonal hypoxia is persistent, in part due to non-point agricultural sources of phosphorus (P) (35% of total P load to Lake Michigan). Agricultural runoff treatment systems (ARTS), consisting of sedimentation basins and phosphorus removal structures, are an effective field treatment to reduce nutrient pollution. Numerous media (>80) for phosphorus removal structures have been investigated for their P removal potential and the hydraulic conductivity; Ca, Fe, Mg and Al content of media are important factors. Reactive media derived from waste products would create a product from waste, extending time prior to disposal, supporting a circular economy. Waste residuals (e.g. drinking water treatment residuals, wood waste, vegetative waste) will be modified (through metal additions, pyrolysis, pelletizing, and binder addition) for and evaluated for dissolved P removal from agricultural runoff. Treatment potential of modified waste media will be measured using flow through lab scale reactors constructed out of 0.75-inch diameter PVC pipe. Columns will be completed in triplicate for each media. Influent and effluent samples will be collected every 4 hours until P removal is <20%. Ortho-phosphorus will be measured in collected samples using a discrete analyzer (Seal AQ300) at UWGB. Media will be designed to maximize P sorption capacity, hydraulic conductivity, mechanical strength, efficacy in high flow systems (< 10 min retention times), and reuse potential; minimize toxic side effects, energy consumption, and cost, critical to adoption. Results from flow through analysis will guide selection of reactive media deployed for field evaluation.

Faculty: Michael Holly

Biosolids Land Application and the Occurrence, Fate, and Mitigation of Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances and Nitrate

Presenters: Emma Loucks, Environmental Engineering Technology

Land application is a beneficial use of biosolids, the semi-solid residual of wastewater treatment. Benefits of the land application of biosolids include substitution or replacement of commercial fertilizers, soil conditioning, and a reduction of landfilled waste. In Wisconsin, land application is typically the most cost effective and common practice for handling sludge in the state; however, groundwater contamination is a potential risk of application. Per and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), a suspected hazardous chemical present in numerous household products and used in manufacturing, will sorb to sludge at a wastewater treatment facility. PFAS is currently not included in biosolids land application regulations and is capable of leaching through the soil profile potentially contaminating water resources. Risk assessment for future guidance requires data collection on the occurrence of PFAS in sludge and soil leaching potential. Nitrate (NO3), the product of biogeochemical transformation of nitrogen in sludge, is a known human health environmental contaminant that is currently regulated. However, even with current regulations NO3 leaching is possible outside of the growing season, requiring additional mitigation. Biochar produced from agricultural waste has the potential to sequester PFAS and NO3 from sludge and could be a low-cost amendment to protect groundwater. The objectives of the proposed research are to 1) evaluate the occurrence of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in sewage sludge; 2) quantify the leaching potential of PFAS and NO3 upon sludge application through soil column experiments; 3) assess the PFAS and NO3 mitigation potential of incorporating biochar in soils receiving sludge applications; 4) assess the ability of HYDRUS-1D modeling to simulate PFAS leaching upon field application of biosolids. Research will be completed through a collaborative approach by the Sustainable Utilization of Biosolids or SUBS research group (including faculty and undergraduates from the UWGB, UW-Madison, UWP, and UWSP campuses). Our approach includes soil column experiments consisting of soils sampled from the main Wisconsin geographical regions. Columns will be amended with PFAS spiked biosolids and receive simulated annual precipitation. Leachate collected biweekly will be measured for chemical composition. An additional set of columns will include modified biochar incorporated in the soil to measure mitigation potential. Completed work will help predict future PFAS groundwater contamination by contaminated soil, generate future guidelines to protect groundwater wells from PFAS, identify Wisconsin groundwater sources at risk, and evaluate a low-cost treatment to further minimize PFAS and NO3 leaching. Undergraduates involved in the study will gain experience and training in methods for measuring the fate and transport of priority contaminants critical to increasing water research and improving water quality in the state of Wisconsin.

Faculty: Michael Holly

Analysis of Local Soil Samples Result in Antibiotic Discovery

Presenters: Arianna Madden, Biology; Mariah Hermsen, Animal Biology

Today, antibiotic resistance is a persistent issue worldwide. The Tiny Earth project addresses the global issue of antibiotic producing bacteria using soil samples. Locally collected soil samples were grown in potato dextrose agar (PDA), glucose yeast extract agar (GYE), and 10% Tryptic soy agar (TSA). After performing a series of soil dilutions, to obtain a CFU count fit for use, colonies of bacterium were then organized into master plates. With the introduction of a gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and gram-negative Pseudomonas putida tester strain, we were able to identify three antibiotic producing bacteria. These bacteria were then aseptically isolated and further evaluated. Our research is important to identifying antibiotic producing bacteria in our soil and retaining information on how and why these bacteria have come to be. It is crucial to the research behind the antibiotic resistance crisis and aids in the movement of the Tiny Earth Project.

Faculty: Lisa Grubisha

Because She's Worth IT: Stereotype Challenges for Female CIOs in Ensuring IT Security Compliance

Presenter: Inigo Martinez, Business Administration

There are more female Fortune 500 CEOs now, but women are still a minority. Only 8% of Fortune 500 CEOs and 10 percent of top management positions in S&P 1500 companies are held by women. On the IT side, in 1995, only 6% of women were CIOs, which has increased to 25% as of 2020 which, while big a significant improvement, still poses a long way from parity. Lack of parity is also associated with lower credibility and perceived social status. Research shows that women CIOs get lower pay and are conferred lower social status. They are expected to perform much better and hit higher benchmarks to reach the same levels as men in organizations. Thus credibility in terms of IT expertise is a serious challenge faced by women business leaders more so in the IT area, as Information Technology has traditionally been male-dominated.

Other than parity, women leaders have many differences from men one such difference is leadership style. While it is known that female leaders are more transformational than transactional, men, in contrast, are known to follow a transactional leadership style in general. Research provides overwhelming evidence that the transformational leadership style is more effective in influencing behavior change and is positively related to performance at the team and organization levels.

Even though women's role in business and IT leadership is growing, there is little research in management and management information systems (MIS) literature to guide women business leaders and CIOs in particular. Thus in this study, we are interested in examining the role of CIO gender, perceived IT expertise (as credibility), and leadership style in influencing behavior change in the subordinates' and organizational members' intention to comply with cyber-security recommendations. The 2x2x2 controlled experiment manipulating gender (male/ female), IT expertise (low/ high), and leadership style (transactional/ transformational) is designed in Qualtrics, and the data is gathered from MTurk workers from all over the US.

The findings will have theoretical and practical implications. It will help inform IT literature on the role of the security message sender's characteristics and the contextual outcomes; on the other hand, they will guide CIOs, particularly women, on how they can tailor their security recommendations to achieve greater behavior change.

Faculty: Gaurav Bansal; Zhuoli Axelton

The relationship between sports fan identification and attitudes regarding gender and sexuality

Presenter: Thomas J. Miller, Psychology

While previous studies on sports fan environments reveal correlations between high sports fan identification and endorsement of sexist attitudes, the effect of sports fan identification on negative attitudes towards issues related to gender and sexuality outside of fan environments have not yet been investigated. In this study, we aim to examine the link between levels of sports fan identification and negative attitudes towards women, homosexual individuals, and transgender individuals. We predicted that higher levels of sports fan identification would positively correlate with stigmatizing attitudes toward women, homosexual individuals, and transgender individuals as compared to those with lower levels of sports fan identification. A sample of 69 UWGB students completed a Qualtrics survey that utilized measures designed to measure sports fan identification, the three types of stigmatizing attitudes, social dominance orientation, and political orientation. Correlational analysis showed statistically significant positive correlations between sports fan identification and sexism and homophobia. Sports fan identification’s relationship with transphobia trended in the expected direction. Political orientation and social dominance orientation may moderate these effects. Multiple regression analyses were used to determine the effect of these variables. Preliminary findings show that when political orientation is controlled for, the effect of sports fan ID is not observed. Likewise, social dominance orientation predicted sexism and interacted with sports fan identification to predict homophobia and transphobia. Possible moderation effects by political orientation and social dominance orientation will be further investigated. This study is ongoing and more extensive analyses will be performed once a full sample has been collected.

Faculty: Elif G. Ikizer

Searching for Novel Antibiotics in Soil Bacteria

Presenters: Sam Missbach, Biology; Isobel Koenig, Animal Biology; Rachel Schindler, Animal Biology

The world is constantly undergoing evolution and discovery of novel antibiotics is being outpaced by the rapid evolution of resistance in microbes, creating antibiotic crisis in health and economics. Soil sustains life in several ways and is used as the premier source for discovery of antibiotic producing bacteria. We tested microbes isolated from soil against ESKAPE safe relatives for antibiotic producers. Five isolates were identified that produced antibiotics effective against Bacillus subtilis with one against both Bacillus subtilis and Esherichia coli. These isolates were characterized by results of biochemical tests, Gram staining, DNA sequencing. Further exploration into antibiotic producing bacteria to discover advanced ways to treat harmful pathogens is needed. Current antibiotics are overused with development of extreme cases of antibiotic resistant bacteria appearing at alarming rates. Further research is required to advance knowledge on how antibiotic producers can evolve.

Faculty: Lisa Grubisha

Inversion of In-Group Favoritism in Hierarchical Relationships

Presenters: Farhiya Muhidin, Psychology; DeNae Bube, Psychology; Cleopatra Opoku-Owusu, Business; Harrison Thiry, Psychology; Brooke Bayerl, Business; Megan Dobner, Business; Riley Kangas, Business; Noah Oltmanns, Business; Nicholas Brunette, Business

Purpose: In-group favoritism is a social phenomenon where individuals give others within the same social group preferential treatment (e.g., affirmation, rewards). The concept was developed in 1906 by William Sumner, and popularized by Tajfel and colleagues in the 1980’s (e.g., Tajfel & Turner, 1986). Although well documented, there may be situations where in-group effects do not apply and can even reverse (invert). For example, inversion can occur when two in-group members are forced to compete for the same rewards, or when one in-group member is placed in a hierarchical position of authority over the other (e.g., boss/worker). In such situations, feelings of isolation and betrayal may emerge because expectations of favorable in-group associated treatment does not match expressed behaviors.

Procedure: We developed four scenarios (two in higher education, two in the workplace). To illustrate, one of our scenarios involved two White males in their 50’s who were friends and worked in the same department at a home improvement store; but then one became the supervisor to the other and the second displayed substandard job performance. We hypothesized that in-group inversion would take place in all four scenarios due to the emerging rivalry that was inconsistent with the expected favoritism. A total of 33 participants were informally recruited, representing a wide range of ages, backgrounds, and demographics, who took a Qualtrics survey where they were presented with each of the four scenarios and then asked to respond to five follow-up questions per scenario (1=Strong disagree to 5=Strongly agree). To illustrate, one of the questions for the above scenario was “Brad [the supervisor] has every right to expect more out of John [the associate].” A one-sample t-test was performed for each scenario where a population (non-inverted) mean was assumed to be 1.5 (halfway between Strongly disagree and Somewhat disagree) for each item. Higher ratings reflected stronger inversion.

Results: For the above scenario, the mean of the sum across the five items was 15.0 (sd=2.7), which was significantly different than the assumed population sum of 7.5 (1.5x5). Specifically, t=15.96 (p<.0001) with 32 df. Results for the other three scenarios were highly similar.

Conclusion: These preliminary suggest that in-group favoritism does not always remain in place, and can invert when challenges emerge. Specifically, a sense of unmet expectations and even betrayal can heighten tension between the two in-group members. We plan follow-up research to estimate non-inversion scale means directly.

Faculty: Allen Huffcutt

Soil Microbes: A Solution to Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria

Presenter: Jessica Nead, Biology

Antibiotic resistance is increasing within every aspect of our lives, including in medical settings which poses a risk to human health. I aimed to find bacteria that produced antibiotics from local soil samples. Serial dilutions were done on the soil to help isolate specific bacteria on three different medias (10% TSA, GYE, PDA). Isolated colonies of bacteria were transferred onto spread plates to determine if they produced antibiotic agents against relatives to the most common resistant bacteria. Two bacteria isolated on GYE media that produced antibiotics were then tested further by doing multiple staining practices, biochemical tests, and DNA sequencing to understand specific attributes of these bacteria. Both isolates were found to be gram positive bacteria. I hope with more research on these bacteria that it enhances the Tiny Earth project in their search for new antibiotics.

Faculty: Lisa Grubisha

Maya Angelou

Presenter: Abigail Neubauer, Design Art and minor in Marketing

Digital painting of a portrait of Maya Angelou, with words from pieces written by remarkable women.

Faculty: Valerie Murrenus Pilmaier

When Brian Can Blame the User, and Brianna Needs to Say Sorry? All Robots Are Not Created Equal, Perhaps!

Presenter: Diep Nghiem, Master of Science in Management

With the emergence of artificial intelligence, technology has become an integral part of daily life. Digital transformation has led to the widespread use of AI-based virtual personal assistants (VPAs). VPAs are now a standard feature of most mobile devices and smart speakers, such as Amazon Echo, which people use daily, making them increasingly significant. VPAs have the potential to enhance human capabilities by improving intelligence and cognition, resulting in improved performance. However, privacy concerns remain the top reason users are skeptical about VPAs. Such devices are privy to a lot of sensitive user data and are prone to make missteps that could lead to privacy violations. Such violations can also happen due to user mistakes when settings are not correctly adjusted.

Moreover, research has shown that privacy concerns are associated with trust building and violation and repair. Especially, an apology is more effective when delivered by a male than a female and an apology is more effective than denial in trust repair. It is also known that machine agents that exhibit more feminine characteristics are perceived as female, while those with more masculine characteristics are perceived as male. However, there is little research on the efficiencies of trust repair mechanisms following a privacy violation by a robot and especially if the VPA is perceived as a female instead of a male and the efficacy of different approaches to repair trust after a privacy violation from a virtual personal assistant robot.

The findings will have theoretical, practical and social implications. Through this research, we aim to underscore the significance of recognizing our shared perceptions of gender as a society. The study will also enable us to understand the efficacy of different strategies these different gendered machines can adopt when they compromise user privacy.

Faculty: Gaurav Bansal

The effects of political attitudes on ERN amplitudes in a go/no-go task

Presenters: Ruth Olson, Psychology; Camden Caswell, Psychology

Previous research has sought to establish the cognitive and psychological differences between liberalism and conservatism. From these attempts, political attitudes have been identified. Individual components of ideolog including “views on the economy, military power, gay marriage, and abortion” have been connected to differences in cognitive flexibility, disgust sensitivity, and working memory (Beuchner et al., 2021; Inbar et al., 2009). Such differences in cognitive processing impact executive functioning and can be seen at the neural level in the N200 (Amodio et al., 2007). While conservatism has traditionally been linked to cognitive rigidity, some research suggests that it is rather extreme views that are related to this outcome (Zmigrod et al., 2019). Based on these findings, we used a Go/No-Go task to test our prediction that participants with more polarized political ideologies will show a lack of differentiation in the ERN, reflecting greater cognitive rigidity

In the present study, over 50 participants (around 30% male, 70% female) were brought into the lab to do a standard Go/No-Go task after they completed a series of Likert-style survey questions related to political stances on the economy, military power, gay marriage, and abortion. The test consisted of 240 trials, 180 of which were go trials and 60 of which were no-go. Each trial was presented for 500ms with a jittered 500-1000ms inter-trial interval. In post processing, we will look at ERN as defined by negative-going deflection between 175 and 300ms post-stimulus for correct versus incorrect trials. Individual differences in correct versus incorrect ERN amplitudes will be predicted by strength of political attitudes.

Faculty: Jason Cowell; Aaron Weinschenk

Testing historic biogeographic rules with North American Flying Squirrels (Glaucomys Volans and G. sabrinus)

Presenter:Tiffany Paalman, Biology(Animal Biology emphasis), Environmental Science minor, Certificate in Nonprofit Management

In the late 1800s, biogeographer Joel Allen observed that many organisms in colder environments have shorter appendages than conspecifics or close relatives in warmer environments. Another 19th-century biogeographer, Carl Bergmann, had earlier concluded that the body size of individuals in cold climates tends to be larger than the body size of close relatives in warmer climates. Both patterns were hypothesized as expressions of the physiological advantage of smaller surface area to volume ratios in colder climates. Known as Allen’s and Bergmann’s Rules, these generalizations have been used widely in ecology to explain evolutionary relationships between form, function, and the environment. Using data from museum specimens collected in the western hemisphere, my preliminary studies of northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) showed a significant positive effect of latitude on female tail length, contradicting Allen’s Rule. Bergmann’s Rule, on the other hand, was supported by these museum samples in males. I further investigated biogeographic patterns in flying squirrels to include a larger sample size and included the closely related southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans). Careful statistical analyses of these data help us understand the physiological ecology of the two flying squirrel species in varying environments across their ranges. Results suggest that biogeographic rules like Allen’s and Bergmann’s Rules may be oversimplifications; other evolutionary factors and physiological constraints might drive conflicting biogeographic patterns that complicate the effects of latitude on surface area/volume relationships.

Faculty: Amy Wolf

The Effects of Restoration Projects on Phosphorus Concentrations In Manitowoc County Streams and Lake Michigan

Presenters:Tiffany Paalman, Biology(Animal Biology emphasis), Environmental Science minor, Certificate in Nonprofit Management; Christopher Santiago; Lee Watson; Natalie Ford; Sam Frauenfeld; Ian Leiker

Phosphorus poses an ongoing challenge to Lake Michigan. Excess levels cause algae blooms resulting in degraded water quality in near-shore waters. As local tributaries serve as important phosphorus sources to Lake Michigan, we analyzed phosphorus levels in two streams in Manitowoc County, WI Centerville Creek and the Little Manitowoc River. These streams have historically exceeded Wisconsin DNR surface water phosphorus standards of 0.075 mg/l. Each stream has undergone restoration near where they enter Lake Michigan in order to slow stream flow and reduce phosphorus loading into Lake Michigan.

Each creek showed a different trend in phosphorus concentration along its length. Centerville Creek showed lower phosphorus concentrations within the restoration area compared to the upstream branches, although all significantly exceeded the WDNR threshold. The north branch averaged 0.510 mg/L of phosphorus, and the south branch averaged 0.430 mg/L. Sites within the restoration project averaged 0.307 mg/L. In contrast, no difference in phosphorus concentration was noted between the upstream and restoration sites in the Little Manitowoc River. This may be because this restoration was more recently completed (2020 vs 2012), or due to the surrounding land use as the Little Manitowoc River runs through the city of Manitowoc, while Centerville Creek goes through agricultural land. However, overall concentrations across the Little Manitowoc River were lower than any of the Centerville sites, with an average concentration of 0.071 mg/L, below the WDNR threshold, and rain events did not increase phosphorus as much as in Centerville Creek. Future work will focus on identifying future sources as well as continued monitoring to evaluate the success of these restorations and inform land use decision-making.

Faculty: Richard Hein; Rebecca Abler

The Effects of Antidepressants on Behavioral Inhibition: An ERP Study

Presenter:Kaitlyn Partridge, Psychology

There is extensive research which indicates that depressed individuals exhibit greater deficits in executive function than non-depressed individuals (Bredemeier et al., 2016). From these deficits, problems in domains such as memory, attention, and problem-solving, arise due to their heavy reliance on executive function (Levin et al., 2007). Most of these studies do not exclude individuals who utilize antidepressants; however, pre-clinical studies indicate that modifications of dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways disrupt self-control (Baler & Volkow, 2006). Serotonin is clearly implicated in the processes of behavioral inhibition, where, within a go/no-go task, upregulation leads to decreased errors and downregulation leads to increased errors (Eagle et al., 2008). On the other hand, deficient serotonergic modulation of dopaminergic activity may result in hyperactivity of the dopamine system, resulting in poor behavioral inhibition (Seo et al., 2008). The go/no-go task is a common cognitive neuroscience task for the study of behavioral inhibition (Chikara & Ko, 2019). For the present electroencephalography (EEG) study, we have chosen to focus on the effects of antidepressant usage utilizing the go/no-go task.

Participants will undergo go/no-go 240 trials, where 180 trials are go and 60 trails are no-go. Each is presented for 500ms with a jittered 500ms to 1000ms inter-trial interval. In post-processing we will specifically look at the N200 wave, a negative-going deflection between 175ms and 300ms post-stimulus for go versus no-go trials. The resulting N200 amplitudes will be predicted by use or non-use of antidepressants. By March 2023, we will have an estimated 25 participants consisting of approximately 70% female and 30% male participants. Around 15% of college students within the United States are prescribed antidepressants (Morris et al., 2021).

Faculty: Jason Cowell

The Value of Qualitative Research: Highlighting Utility Through a Study of COVID Nursing

Presenter:Clayton Penny, Philosophy & Psychology

Scientific investigation often focuses on measurement of predetermined variables and the relationships between them; however, it is arguable that these methods are suitable only for a subset of all possible inquiries. Specifically, this type of quantitative research is satisfactory for investigations with well-defined variables and established modes of measurement, yet there is an important mode of inquiry which cannot utilize these tools. Qualitative research, instead, aims to get closer to the phenomenon under investigation and acquire data which may not easily be defined or measured. This approach is specifically beneficial in its ability to foster new insights, incorporate subjective experience, transcend rigid definitions, and serve as the basis for holistic understanding. This examination uses literature review and participatory observation of a current UWGB Nursing and Health Studies investigation to highlight the values and shortcomings of qualitative research through reflection on the impact of COVID on direct care providers working in long-term care. The findings highlight the inquiry dependent utility of qualitative research and methods for overcoming its limitations and enhancing its strengths.

Faculty: Myunghee Jun; Hye-kyung Kim; Christine Vandenhouten; Jenna Liphart Rhoads

Tiny Earth: The Search for Antibiotic-Producing Bacteria

Presenter: Kayla Potratz, Biology

The presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) is a massive issue in the medical field, and results in otherwise preventable human deaths. Tiny Earth is a global project that seeks to find new antibiotics from soil bacteria from student research projects. Soil samples were collected and then diluted, and then spread on three different media potato dextrose agar (PDA), 10% tryptic soy agar (TSA), and glycerol yeast extract (GYE). Bacterial isolates were screened against two ESKAPE safe relatives Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE) and Escherichia coli (EC) for production of antibiotics. I isolated two antibiotic producers and further characterized them using various tests, including Gram staining, DNA sequencing, and biochemical tests. One isolate was a Gram-positive bacillus. The other isolate was a Gram-negative coccus. Both isolates produced antibiotics against SE. The results from the remaining tests will be presented in the poster. Student-sourced research projects could help scientists discover new antibiotics.

Faculty: Lisa Grubisha

Relationship between Social Anxiety and Four Types of Empathy

Presenter: Alissondra Quatsoe, Psychology

Research on the relationship between empathy and social anxiety is mixed, with two contrary views. One side argues that empathy deficits may be a potential cause of impaired social functioning in individuals with social anxiety (Gambin et al., 2018; Lamm et al., 2016). An opposing view, suggests that heightened sensitivity to the emotions of others may reinforce and encourage hypervigilance to potential social threats, leading to more concern and anxiety (Auyeung & Alden, 2020). The current study attempts to clarify this conflicted literature by exploring the relationship between social anxiety and four different types of empathy among a high-empathy population (personal distress, fantasy scale, perspective taking, and empathic concern). Twenty-five participants were recruited from existing Empathy Circles online support groups. Participants answered a series of questions measuring empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index) and social anxiety (Social Interaction Anxiety Scale). When looking into the different types of empathy, a significant positive correlation was found between the fantasy scale and social anxiety (r = 0.397, p=0.049), personal distress and social anxiety (r = 0.740, p=0.000), and a negative correlation was found between perspective-taking and social anxiety (r = -0.418, p=0.038). No correlation was found between empathic concern and social anxiety. These results suggest that people who vicariously feel the distress of others, or transpose themselves into fictional narratives, are more likely to show symptoms of social anxiety. On the other hand, taking other people’s perspectives regularly is associated with less social anxiety. These results reiterate the importance of measuring empathy as a multidimensional construct and avoiding blanket statements about the relationship between empathy and social anxiety.

Faculty: Alison Jane Martingano

Do the Speeds of Coronal Mass Ejections Depend on Magnetic Field Strength?

Presenter: Zoi Sherolli, Mechanical Engineering

Ejections of mass from the lower solar corona (the Sun's outer atmosphere) are driven by magnetic forces and can cause severe "space weather" disturbances at Earth. Observations show that faster coronal mass ejections (CMEs) tend to produce greater disturbances, so efforts to understand the physical processes that affect ejection dynamics are ongoing. Recently, the Flux Accretion (FA) model of CME formation was proposed to explain the strong link reported between speeds of flare-associated CMEs and the flare's "ribbon flux" --- the amount of magnetic flux at the Sun's surface underlying sites of enhanced flare radiation from the solar atmosphere immediately overhead. The FA model quantitatively relates the magnetic flux added to a rising ejection by magnetic reconnection to an increased, net outward force on that ejection: it predicts that the change in force, dF, due to reconnection of an amount of flux dPhi scales as the product (dPhi B), where B is the coronal magnetic field strength near the ejection. In addition to explaining the observed correlation between CME speed and ribbon flux, the FA model makes another prediction: the speeds of CMEs should, after accounting for their dependence on ribbon fluxes, be higher when coronal B is stronger. To test this hypothesis, we plan to (1) investigate relationships between coronal field strengths in CME source regions, determined by extrapolating coronal fields from surface magnetic measurements, and CME speeds; and (2) assess the relative contributions from coronal B and ribbon flux.

Faculty: Brian Welsch

Preliminary Investigation of the LINC Complex Knockdown on TBI Outcomes

Presenters: Megan Seefeldt, Human Biology; Tabitha Sikora, Human Biology

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects millions of individuals each year. However, the genetic and environmental factors which influence TBI outcomes are poorly understood, in part due to poor animal models with which to study these conditions. Previous research supports a coarse model in which age and nucleoskeletal factors, which contribute to stable gene expression and stress responses in the cell, play roles in TBI outcomes. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is an ideal model to use in a screen for genetic factors which influence predisposition towards negative TBI outcomes. We targeted linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex members via an RNAi-based approach. We found that global knock-down of the fly lamin B (lamin), KASH domain members (Msp300 and klarsicht), or the SUN-domain member (klaroid) did not overtly affect mortality via either a single severe TBI injury nor repetitive moderate TBI compared to genetic background controls. Thus, these LINC complex members do not appear to contribute to TBI-induced mortality by these conditions. One future direction is to screen older animals since lamin dysfunction in particular causes age-progressive phenotypes.

Faculty: Douglas Brusich

Recovering Antibiotics in Soil Bacteria

Presenters: Sammy Stevenson, Biology; Jayda Fritz, Biology

Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a growing concern within the medical world. The Tiny Earth project allows researchers to discover novel antibiotics within soil samples in hopes of finding new bacteria with properties to work against pathogens that have developed resistance. Our research included recovering soil samples on the UW Green Bay campus, creating dilutions to find isolates, and testing if they produce antibiotics. Dilutions were plated on three types of agar: Potato Dextrose (PDA), Glucose Yeast Extract (GYE), and Tryptic Soy (TSA). We tested by plating found isolates against ESKAPE pathogens. We found four isolates that produced antibiotics against Enterobacter aerogenes and Staphlococcus epidermis and were characterized further with biochemical testing. These biochemical tests include Sulfur, Indole, Motility tubes(SIM), catalase testing, and Thioglycollate broth tubes etc. These four isolates have potential to be incredibly useful in developing new antibiotics against pathogens.

Faculty: Lisa Grubisha

The Evolution of Voyageur Magazine

Presenter: Cora Terletzky, History & Digital and Public Humanities

An analysis of Voyageur magazine and its content over the forty years of publication. This will track the changes in article subjects and author demographics. Additionally it look at the level of diversity included in the magazine. This project will be looking to see if there are noticeable trends or major changes in what is published over the years.

Faculty: Kristopher Purzycki

Neurodiversity, Personality, and Mental Health Challenges

Presenters: Harrison Thiry, Psychology; DeNae Bube, Psychology; Riley Kangas, Business

Purpose: Prominent variations of neurodiversity include autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and dyslexia. Institutions of higher education should foster an inclusive environment for these individuals, which includes understanding common behavioral attributes, limitations, predictors, prevalence, and desirable adaptations.

Procedure: Participants in our pilot study were 23 females and 8 males (31 total), drawn from convenience and student sources. The primary goal in this first foray into investigation of neurodiversity in higher education was to focus on personality and related associations with common attributes of these three forms of neurodiversity. Follow-up with larger samples is planned to investigate their prevalence and effects / limitations in the college environment

Results: Results found that openness to experience correlated negatively with typical ASD symptoms such as difficulty with social norms (r = -.52, p<.01). Neuroticism correlated positively with ASD symptoms (r = .46, p < .05), and individuals higher on neuroticism were more likely to suffer burnout (r = .74, p< .00001). Participants endorsing ADHD symptoms also reported higher burnout (r = .50, p< .01), and participants not reporting ADHD symptoms reported higher levels of self-care activities (r = -.46, p<.01).

Conclusion: Although this pilot study focused on associations and not causality, our results nonetheless identify several correlates of neurodiverse symptoms and provide direction for follow-up research. The potential benefits of enhanced understanding of neurodiversity in higher education include targeted resources, classroom adaptations, and counseling resources. In short, continued research offers great potential to afford neurodiverse students the same opportunity to succeed as neuro-normal students.

Faculty:Allen Huffcutt

University Avenue Corridor Latino Business Analysis

Presenters: Bryce Thompson, Environmental Policy and Planning; Alexandria Brey, Environmental Policy and Planning

The City of Green Bay wants to redevelop the University Avenue corridor in the coming years. This could be great for the local economy and area; however, the University Avenue corridor is also home to the largest number of Latino residents in Green Bay, along with many Latino businesses along the avenue. The fear is that many of these businesses could be priced out and displaced as this project progresses. This project gives a critique of the plan along with multiple GIS maps displaying population and business data to support the claim.

Faculty: Marcelo Cruz

Children's Book: Tommy's First Lesson about Solids, Liquids, and Gasses

Presenters: Bethany Vance, Kinesiology; Kaylin Vang, Biology

During our Chemistry 211 course, we were tasked with turning a chemistry subject into a children's book for preschoolers. The intent behind the book is to expand the science outreach program by including younger audiences. We will be sharing how we wrote and illustrated our project.

Faculty: Amy Kabrhel

Barbier-type organozinc reactions

Presenters: Colleen Yeskie, Chemistry

Barbier-type organozinc reactions have been used as Green Chemistry substitution (or additions) for Grignard reactions. The organozinc reactions use less organic solvent, as the main nucleophilic addition occurs under aqueous conditions. This can be preferable to the sensitivity to moisture that occurs with Grignard reactions, while also using Green Chemistry principles. The original organozinc lab uses 3-pentanone as the substrate and is run for 60 minutes. However, our idea is to extend to other ketone substrates and potentially longer run times, then have students try to determine their starting material based on acquired IR and NMR spectra. Multiple substrates were tested using original reaction conditions and analyzed by IR, NMR and gas chromatography (for purity)

Analysis of the results shows that the Barier organozinc reaction is successful on a variety of ketones. Some of the products are pure enough to allow students to determine the original ketone. Spectra of various products along with standard conditions will be discussed on the poster.

Faculty: James Kabrhel